Basic Skin Facts
The skin consists of two basic layers: the epidermis, which is the top layer and the dermis which is the bottom layer. In between the two layers lies the basement membrane, which helps to regulate what is able to make it through the outer layer of the skin to our internal system. This basement membrane is especially important in skin care science, because it limits the absorption of some ingredients.
The main function of the epidermis is to prevent water loss from the skin
If it fails in its ability to regulate water loss, then the skin will feel rough and become dryer.
The epidermis has five main layers. Cells start at the bottom layer, and work their way to the top of the skin. As they make their way from the bottom to the top, the cells undergo a process of programmed cell death. It can take anywhere from 26 to 42 days for this process to occur although it tends to take longer and longer the older we get. As the rate of cell turnover slows down, there is an accumulation of dead cells at the surface of the skin which can make the skin look dull and feel rough. This is why products which stimulate cell turnover can be very effective at not only softening, but brightening skin’s appearance.
The dermis is the deeper and thicker layer of the skin
It consists mostly of a protein called ‘collagen’, the function of which is to provide structural support to the skin. As we age, one of the biggest changes to the skin is loss of collagen content which leads to the skin becoming thinner whilst lines and wrinkles begin to appear. Another important protein molecule in the dermis is called elastin. Whilst collagen gives the skin its strength, elastin gives the skin its elastic recoil which also declines with age.
In addition to the structural proteins, there are also a few cell types present in the dermis too. The most common cell is called fibroblast, which is responsible for manufacturing the collagen and elastin. The holy grail of cosmetic science is stimulating these fibroblast cells to produce more collagen and elastin.
The basement membrane also forms a protective barrier
Blocking materials on the outside of the skin from making their way inside. For many years this presented cosmetic scientists with challenges in delivering ingredients from the surface of the skin to the deeper layers of the dermis, where they needed to be to stimulate collagen production. Novel delivery systems have helped to overcome this issue.
A SMALL SELECTION OF SHOTS FROM OUR BEFORE AND AFTER GALLERY
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